Jamar Handgrip Dynamometer Strength in Males and Females in Traditionally Male Dominated Occupations

by Blake J. Surina

Grip Strength measurements are often used as indices of upper body strength.  Locating valid and reliable standards for males and females, using the Jamar handgrip dynamometer have been difficult to ascertain for the traditionally male dominated occupations of Fire Service, Law Enforcement, and Public Utility Workers. The purpose of this paper is to determine the grip strength values, and establish a method of classifying grip strength and creating standards for use in pre-employment screening for viable candidates seeking employment in these occupations.   


3433 subjects between the age of 17 and 59 years old were used, (3106 males, and 327 females) to create a set of standards for grip strength.   Subject’s data was obtained as a part of a pre-employment fitness evaluation prior to being offered employment.  If multiple assessments were performed on a single candidate, only the first assessment performed by the candidate was used for inclusion in the study.   The number of subjects tested in each occupational category is listed below:

                                                                                                   Males                                  Females

                  Volunteer Firefighters                                           2215                                          254

                  Police Officer                                                            297                                             33

                  Electrical Utility                                                      394                                             12

                  Water Utility                                                            200                                             28

                  Total                                                                         3106                                           327


Subjects were weighed (Befour Model 6600) with a strain gauge scale to the nearest 0.1 pounds, and height was measured using a wall-mounted stadiometer (Seca Accu Hite) to the nearest 1/8inch.   Grip strengths were obtained with a Jamar handgrip dynamometer on the second handle setting for all measurements.  The dynamometers were checked periodically for accuracy by placing a weight on the dynamometer while lying flat on a level surface.  Subjects were seated on a padded plynth with the arm bent 90 degrees at the elbow, and were instructed to squeeze as forcefully as possible while keeping the dynamometer level.  Right and left hands were alternated with three trails obtained for each hand.  A minimum of a 30 second rest was taken between trials.  The best reading from the three trials for each hand was recorded.


Mean grip strengths are computed and displayed with the standard deviations from each 5-year age group for both male and females in Table 1 and Table 2.  An attempt was made to gather a substantial number of candidates in each category for the creation of standards, but the scarcity of the female candidates data made it difficult to find adequate representation, particularly in age groups beyond 40. 

Creating a Standard

Creating grip strength standards will rely on the standard deviation to create the categorical scoring. The mean values for each age group, broken down by sex, will correspond to the “Average” category.  The “High” category will correspond to one standard deviation above the mean, and the “Fair” category will correspond to one standard deviation below the mean.  Finally, the “Excellent” category will correspond will any a score greater than two standard deviations above the mean, and “Low” category will correspond to a score lower than two standard deviations from the mean.   Table 5 and Table 6 show a proposed set of standards for Males from ages 17 through 50+ and Females from ages 17 through age 40+.

Allometrically Scaling Grip Strength Standards

Common sense would tell us that generally strong individuals have strong grips, and weak individuals have weak grips.   The question becomes how to we adjust for different sized individuals?  Absolute grip strength values are the most common method of classifying strength in earlier research. By using absolute strength values, strength classifications become more advantageous to larger subjects.  

Relative strength values (grip strength divided by the individual’s body weight) would eliminate the advantage of the larger subjects, but would shift the advantage to the smaller individual.  It is well known in competitive weight lifting, smaller competitors perform at a higher percentage of body weight than their larger cohorts.  By equally weighing the absolute and relative strength classifications scores, a commonly quoted 2/3 exponential relationship between body weight and strength is created.  Allometrically scaling grip strength measurements will represent a fair and meaningful index of classifying maximal grip strength.

Allometric scaling creates a reference humanand scoring is based on what the individual would score if he were corrected to the size of a reference human, (90 kg for Males and 72.5 kg for Females).  This can be done with a simple  -1/3 correction factor that would converting conventional linear 1:1 relationship of strength to weight, to a more meaningful 2/3 exponential relationship.  Through a simple process of dividing the cube root of the reference populations body weight, (90 kg^(1/3) = 4.48 for males and 72.5 kg^(1/3) = 4.17 for females) by the individual’s cubed root body weight a correction factor is created. This correction factor is multiplied by the subject’s raw score to create theindividual’s allometrically scaled equivalent termed a Compensatedgrip strength value, or c-score

This can be done with a single function on a standard calculator.  Enter the subjects weight in kilos, press the yxbutton and enter the (1/3) exponent.  This value will be divided into the reference male (4.48) or reference female (4.17) cube root values.  The result is a correction factor to be multiplied times the individual’s raw grip strength score.   

                  Equation 1:          Ref. Population Weight ^(1/3)    =  Correction Factor

                                    Individuals Weight ^(1/3)

Using the identical standards provided in Table 5 and Table 6 for both males and females, a more meaningful and valid classification of strength can be realized.

Grade Point Average Format

Accessing population reference data is often difficult to locate.  To avoid this a proposal is made to create a Grade Point Average (GPA) system of reporting physiological data.   The familiarity with the GPA format is widely recognized in the United States lay population, but can have important applications for the epidemiologist or scholar of exercise science.  In the proposed system the 2.00 GPA would correlate to the population mean for the reference population, (“Average”category).  The 3.00 GPA would correlate to one standard deviation above the mean value, and a 1.00 GPA would correlate to one standard deviation below the mean, (“High” and “Fair” categories respectively).  4.00 GPA would correlate to a value over 2 standard deviations above the mean, and a 0.00 GPA would correlate to a value over 2 standard deviations below the mean, (“Excellent” and “Low” categories respectively). 

This would be accomplished by assigning a GPA scoring system for each grip strength value in the range from the “Low” category to the “Excellent” category for the population tested. For instance a 75 year-old female’s dominant grip ranges from 15.1 kg (two standard deviations below the mean), to 40.1 kilograms, (two standard deviation above the mean).  The range from “Low” to “Excellent” is 25 kilograms, which would be divided into 4.00 to generate the grade points for each unit of weight achieved in this range, (i.e. 4.00/25 kg= 0.16 GPA per kilogram.  

For example if the 75 year-old female in our example obtains a grip strength value of 29.7 kg, than they would achieve 14.6 kilos over the 0.00 equivalent value of 15.1 kg. (29.7 kg-15.1 kg = 14.6 kg).  Since each kilo over 0.00 has a value of 0.16 then 0.16 times 14.6 kg = 2.34 GPA.  By examining the reference grip strength chart (Table 6) you can see that a value of 29.7 kilos is approximately a third of the way between the “Average” and the “High category values.       

If an individual obtains a score of 2.36 GPA for grip strength, they would understand the score is above average (C+ B- range), and the epidemiologist would know the subject was .36 standard deviations above the mean for that population.  By having the grip strength means and the individuals GPA score, a researcher could recreate the distribution curve for the entire reference population. 

The advantage of the GPA method is the ease of determining the group means and standard deviations from the each reference population.  With the addition of allometric scaling, using the method outlined, a system will be created to improve the ability to classify grip strength scores across differing sex, age and body dimensions and a fair and equitable manner.       


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